Why does my dog sleep with his nose covered?

There are many reasons why a dog might sleep with his nose covered. One reason is that the dog may be cold. Another reason is that the dog may be uncomfortable with being nose-to-nose with another dog or person. Some dogs may do this as a way of asserting dominance over their sleeping environment.

Chappaquiddick incident DateJuly 18-19, 1969 LocationChappaquiddick Island, Massachusetts Coordinates41°22′24.0′′N70°27′13.3′′W / 41.373333°N 70.453694°W TypeAutomobile accident CauseNegligent operation by Ted Kennedy OutcomeTed Kennedy's driver's license suspended 16 months Casualties1 dead DeathsMary Jo Kopechne, age 28 BurialJuly 22, 1969

Why does my dog sleep with his nose covered?
DateJuly 18–19, 1969 LocationChappaquiddick Island, Massachusetts Coordinates41°22′24.0″N 70°27′13.3″W / 41.373333°N 70.453694°WCoordinates: 41°22′24.0″N 70°27′13.3″W / 41.373333°N 70.453694°W TypeAutomobile accident CauseNegligent operation by Ted Kennedy OutcomeTed Kennedy's driver's license suspended 16 months Casualties1 dead DeathsMary Jo Kopechne, age 28 BurialJuly 22, 1969, Plymouth, Pennsylvania Inquiries

  • July 25, 1969, Superior Court
  • Dukes County grand jury, April 6, 1970
  • Massachusetts Registry of Motor Vehicles, May 18, 1970

InquestJanuary 1970, Edgartown Charges

  • Leaving the scene of a bodily injury accident[1][2][3]
  • operation of a motor vehicle at an excessively fast speed for the circumstances

ConvictionsLeaving the scene of an accident with bodily harm SentenceTwo months suspended; one year probation suspended[4]

The Chappaquiddick incident occurred on Chappaquiddick Island in Massachusetts between July 18 and 19, 1969,[5][6], when Senator Edward M. "Ted" Kennedy drove his car off a narrow bridge, causing it to overturn in a tidal pond.As a result, his 28-year-old passenger Mary Jo Kopechne drowned while trapped inside the vehicle.[7][8][9][10]Chappaquiddick incident occurred on Chappaquiddick Island in Massachusetts some time around midnight between July 18 and 19, 1969,[5][6] when Senator Edward M. "Ted" Kennedy negligently drove his car off a narrow bridge, causing it to overturn in a tidal pond. This resulted in the drowning death of his 28-year-old passenger Mary Jo Kopechne, who was trapped inside the vehicle.[7][8][9][10]

At 11:15 p.m. Friday, Kennedy left a party on Chappaquiddick.He maintained that his intention was to immediately transport Kopechne to a ferry landing and return to Edgartown, but that he made a wrong turn onto a dirt road leading to a one-lane bridge. After his car skidded off the bridge into Poucha Pond, Kennedy swam free and claimed that he attempted to rescue Kopechne from the submerged car but was unable to do so.Kopechne's death could have occurred at any time between 11:30 p.m. Friday and 1 a.m. Saturday.At 12:40 a.m. on Saturday, an off-duty deputy sheriff reported seeing a car with Kennedy's license plate. Kennedy left the scene and did not report the accident to police until after 10 a.m.Meanwhile, shortly before 9 a.m. on Saturday, a diver recovered Kopechne's body from Kennedy's car.Saturday.  p.m. Friday. He maintained that his intent was to immediately take Kopechne to a ferry landing and return to Edgartown, but that he accidentally made a wrong turn onto a dirt road leading to a one-lane bridge. After his car skidded off the bridge into Poucha Pond, Kennedy swam free, and maintained that he tried to rescue Kopechne from the submerged car, but that he could not. Kopechne's death could have happened any time between about 11:30 p.m. Friday and 1 a.m. Saturday, as an off-duty deputy sheriff stated he saw a car matching Kennedy's license plate at 12:40 a.m. Kennedy left the scene and did not report the accident to police until after 10 a.m. Saturday. Meanwhile, a diver recovered Kopechne's body from Kennedy's car shortly before 9 a.m. Saturday.

Kennedy pled guilty to leaving the scene of an accident on July 25, 1969, and received a two-month suspended jail sentence. In a televised statement that same evening, he said his actions immediately after the accident "made no sense to me at all," and that his failure to report the accident immediately was "indefensible."A judicial inquest held on January 5, 1970, concluded that Kennedy and Kopechne did not intend to take the ferry, and that Kennedy intentionally turned toward the bridge, driving negligently, if not recklessly, at too high a speed for the hazard that the bridge posed in the dark. The judge did not recommend charges, and a grand jury convened on April 6, 1970, returning no indictments.A Registry of Motor Vehicles hearing on May 27, 1970, resulted in Kennedy's driver's license being suspended for a total of sixteen months following the accident.

The Chappaquiddick incident became national news and was said to have influenced Kennedy's decision not to run for President in 1972 and 1976[8][9][10], as well as his chances of ever becoming President.[11] Kennedy eventually decided to enter the 1980 Democratic Party presidential primaries, but received only 37.6% of the vote and lost the nomination to incumbent President Jimmy Carter.

Background[edit][edit]

Why does my dog sleep with his nose covered?

Senator Edward M.(Ted) Kennedy, 37, and his cousin, Joseph Gargan, 39,[Notes 1], planned to race Kennedy's sailboat, Victura, in the 1969 Edgartown Yacht Club Regatta on Friday and Saturday, July 18 and 19, 1969, after missing the previous year's Regatta due to the assassination of Kennedy's brother, Robert, that June. Gargan rented secluded Lawrence Cottage for the weekend on Chappaquiddick Island,[14],Six of them, all in their twenties and single, attended the party: Mary Jo Kopechne, Rosemary Keough, Esther Newberg, sisters Nance and Mary Ellen Lyons, and Susan Tannenbaum. p.m that evening[15] as a re-union for the "Boiler Room Girls", women who had served on Robert Kennedy's 1968 presidential campaign. Six of these attended the party: Mary Jo Kopechne, Rosemary Keough, Esther Newberg, sisters Nance and Mary Ellen Lyons, and Susan Tannenbaum. All were in their twenties, and single.

The men at the party included the crew of Kennedy's sailboat, which was competing in the regatta: Gargan; Paul Markham, a school friend of Gargan's who had previously served as the United States Attorney for Massachusetts;[16] and John B.Crimmins, 63,[8] a long-time political associate of Kennedy who served as his chauffeur for the weekend.[17] Also in attendance were attorney Charles Tretter, a Kennedy advisor, and Raymond LaRosa, who had worked on Kennedy's Senate campaigns; all the men were married, except Crimmins; wives were not invited to the Chappaquiddick weekend.The men were staying at the Shiretown Inn, one block from the Edgartown ferry slip, and the women at the Katama Shores motor inn, about two miles (3.2 kilometers) south of the ferry slip.

Sequence of events[edit][edit]

The crash[edit][edit]

Why does my dog sleep with his nose covered?

The Dike Bridge is only accessible by a dirt road that leads to dead-end sand dunes past Poucha Pond; there was no guardrail in 1969.

According to Kennedy, Kopechne asked him to drive her back to her hotel in Katama, and he requested the keys to his car (which he did not usually drive) from his chauffeur Crimmins.[20] Although he was not wearing a watch, the time came from Crimmins' watch;[8] the time came from Crimmins' watch.[21] Returning to Edgartown and Katama required taking the last ferry, which left the island at midnight, or calling to arrangeKopechne didn't tell anyone else she was leaving for the night with Kennedy, and she actually left her purse and hotel key at the party. p.m.", although he was not wearing a watch;[8] the time came from Crimmins' watch.[21] Returning to Edgartown and Katama required making the last ferry, which left the island at midnight, or else calling to arrange a later ferry. Kopechne told no one else that she was leaving for the night with Kennedy, and, in fact, left her purse and hotel key at the party.[22]

Due to a conflict between Kennedy's testimony and that of a deputy sheriff who claimed to have seen his car later, the exact time of the crash is unknown. Kennedy claimed that as soon as he left the party, he immediately drove one-half mile (0.8 km) north on Chappaquiddick Road headed for the ferry landing, and made a wrong turn, right, onto the dirt Dike Road, instead of bearing left to stay on the paved ChappaquidAt this intersection, there is also a northbound dirt Cemetery Road.citation needed]

Part-time Deputy Sheriff Christopher "Huck" Look left work as a gate guard in uniform for the regatta dance at 12:30 a.m. on Saturday, returned to Chappaquiddick Island in the yacht club's private boat, and drove east and south on Chappaquiddick Road toward his home.Around 12:40 a.m., after passing the intersection with Dike Road, he noticed a dark four-door sedan driven by a man with a woman in the front seat approaching and slowly passing in front of him. The car drove off the pavement onto Cemetery Road and came to a stop.Look stopped and walked towards the other vehicle, thinking the occupants of the car might be lost; when he was 25 to 30 feet (7.6 to 9.1 m) away, the car reversed and began backing up towards him.As he called out for help, the car moved forward and veered quickly eastward onto Dike Road, speeding away and leaving a cloud of dust.[23] Look recalled that the car's license plate began with an L and contained two 7s, consistent with Kennedy's license L78-207 on his Oldsmobile Delmont 88.[8] He returned to his car and continued on his way south. a.m. on Saturday as a gate guard in uniform for the regatta dance, returned to Chappaquiddick Island in the yacht club's private boat, and drove east and south on Chappaquiddick Road toward his home. At around 12:40 a.m., after he passed the intersection with Dike Road, he saw a dark four-door sedan driven by a man, with a woman in the front seat, approaching and passing slowly in front of him. The car drove off the pavement onto Cemetery Road, and stopped. Thinking the occupants of the car might be lost, Look stopped and walked towards the other vehicle. When he was 25 to 30 feet (7.6 to 9.1 m) away, the car reversed and started backing up towards him. As he called out to offer help, the car moved forward and veered quickly eastward onto Dike Road, speeding away and leaving a cloud of dust.[23] Look recalled that the car's license plate began with an L and contained two 7s, consistent with Kennedy's license L78–207 on his Oldsmobile Delmont 88.[8] He returned to his car, and continued on his way south. Look's version, if true, leaves over an hour of Kennedy's time with Kopechne unaccounted before the crash.[citation needed]

Look noticed Kennedy's party guests Nance and Mary Ellen Lyons, as well as Ray LaRosa, dancing in a conga line down the middle of Chappaquiddick Road, just south of the Dike Bridge, and stopped to ask if they needed a ride, which they declined.Look's testimony about meeting him in the road and the verbal exchange was corroborated by LaRosa and the Lyons sisters, who also said they saw a vehicle driving north on Chappaquiddick Road that they couldn't describe in detail.citation needed]

Dike Road leads seven-tenths of a mile (1.1 km) to Dike Bridge,[24] a wooden structure angled obliquely to the road, crossing the channel connecting Cape Pogue Pond to the north and Poucha Pond to the south,[25] leading eastward to a barrier beach known as Tom's Neck Point.[26] At the time, the bridge was not fitted with guardrails.

Rescue attempts[edit][edit]

Why does my dog sleep with his nose covered?

Dike House is located 150 yards from the bridge on Dike Road.

Kennedy was able to swim away from the vehicle, but Kopechne was unable to do so. Kennedy stated that he called her name several times from the shore and attempted to swim down to reach her seven or eight times.He then rested on the bank for about 15 minutes before returning on foot to Lawrence Cottage, denying seeing any house with a light on during his 15-minute walk back.[29] His route back took him past four houses from which he could have telephoned to summon help before reaching the cottage, but he did not attempt to contact the local residents.Malm later stated that she was home, that she had a phone, and that she had left a light on at the house when she retired that evening.

Kennedy returned to the cottage, where the party was still going on, but instead of informing all of the guests about the crash, he quietly summoned Gargan and Markham, and collapsed in the back seat of a rented Plymouth Valiant parked in the driveway. Gargan drove the three to the crash site to try to rescue Kopechne from Kennedy's overturned car.Gargan and Markham jumped into the pond and attempted to rescue her several times, but were unable to do so due to the strong tidal current. Once recovered, Gargan drove Kennedy and Markham to the ferry landing.Gargan and Markham insisted repeatedly that the crash be reported to authorities.

Kennedy's reaction[edit][edit]

Kennedy abruptly dove into the channel, swam the 500 feet (150 m) across to Edgartown, and returned to his hotel room, where he removed his clothes and collapsed on his bed. He later put on dry clothes, left his room, and asked someone what time it was; it was somewhere around 2:30 a.m., he recalled. Meanwhile, Gargan and Markham had driven the rental car back to the cottageWhen the guests questioned them, they said that Kennedy had swum back to Edgartown and that Kopechne was probably at her hotel; Gargan then told everyone to go to bed.

By 7:30 a.m., Kennedy was casually conversing with the winner of the previous day's sailing race, with no indication that anything was wrong.[16] By 8 a.m., Gargan and Markham had returned to Edgartown on the ferry, where they met Kennedy.citation needed]

Recovery of the body[edit][edit]

A man and a fifteen-year-old boy who went fishing off Tom's Neck Point saw Kennedy's submerged car in Poucha Pond and notified the residents of the cottage nearest the scene, who, in turn, called the authorities at about 8:20 a.m.[34] Edgartown Police Chief Dominick James Arena arrived at the scene about 10 or 15 minutes later.

Meanwhile, Kennedy, Gargan, and Markham took the ferry back to Chappaquiddick Island, where Kennedy made a series of phone calls from a pay phone near the ferry crossing—the same phone where the three men had stood approximately six hours earlier discussing Kennedy's options. Kennedy called friends and lawyers for advice, rather than notifying authorities that he was the operator of the vehicle, which was still upside down in Poucha Pond.That morning, he called his brother-in-law Stephen Edward Smith,[Notes 3][40] congressman John V. Tunney,[41] and others, but he did not report the accident to authorities.

Kennedy was still at the pay phone when he learned that his car and Kopechne's body had been discovered;[42] he then crossed back to Edgartown to go to the police station with Markham, while Gargan went to the Katama Shores to inform the Boiler Room Girls of the incident.When Arena returned to the station at 10:00, he was "stunned" to learn Kennedy already knew about the accident and the true identity of the victim, and admitted he was the driver.[43] Arena led Kennedy to another empty office where he could privately dictate his statement to Markham, who wrote it out in long hand.Arena then typed the following statement: [44][Notes 4] a.m. He asked to make some telephone calls, and was told he could use Arena's office. When Arena returned to the station at 10:00, he was "stunned" to learn Kennedy already knew of the accident and the true identity of the victim, and admitted he was the driver.[43] Arena led Kennedy to another empty office where he could privately dictate his statement to Markham, who wrote it out in long hand. Arena then typed out the statement:[44][Notes 4]

On July 18, 1969, at approximately 11:15 p.m., I was driving my car down Main Street in Chappaquiddick, Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, on my way to catch the ferry back to Edgartown.I was unfamiliar with the road and turned right onto Dyke [sic] Road instead of bearing hard left on Main Street. After about a half mile on Dyke [sic] Road, I descended a hill and came to a narrow bridge. [Notes 6] The car went off the side of the bridge.Miss Mary ___, a former secretary of my brother, Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, was one of my passengers.The car flipped over and sank into the water, landing with the roof on the bottom; I tried to open the door and window, but have no recollection of how I got out of the car.I came to the surface and then repeatedly dove down to the car to see if the passenger was still inside, but I was unsuccessful.I was exhausted and in shock, and I remember walking back to where my friends were eating.I climbed into the backseat of a car parked in front of the cottage and asked for someone to drive me back to Edgartown.I remember walking around for a while before returning to my hotel room, and when I realized what had happened this morning, I immediately called the police.

Kennedy stated that Arena's statement was correct, but he did not sign it.

Because Medical Examiner Dr. Robert Nevin was unavailable, Associate Medical Examiner Dr.Donald Mills was summoned to the crash site to examine the body, and after concluding that the cause of death was accidental drowning, he asked the District Attorney's office whether an autopsy was required, and was told that it was not, as long as there were no signs of foul play and he was satisfied it was a drowning.He signed the death certificate, released the body for embalming, and directed that a blood sample be collected and sent to the State Police for analysis of alcohol content.[46] The result was 0.09%, which Mills mistakenly thought represented only a "moderate" level, but in fact indicated up to five drinks of liquor within an hour prior to death in a person of Kopechne's weight.

Kopechne's body was returned to her family, and her funeral took place on Tuesday, July 22, in Plymouth, Pennsylvania.

Medical Examiner Nevin strongly opposed Mills' decision to forego autopsy,[51] believing that ruling out foul play would benefit Kennedy by putting public speculation to rest.

When President Richard Nixon's security operative Jack Caulfield learned of the incident, he sent Anthony Ulasewicz to Dike Bridge disguised as a newspaper reporter to gather information because he believed Kennedy would be his opponent in the 1972 presidential election. Although Ulasewicz was able to interview several witnesses in front of law enforcement authorities, he found no useful information.

Disputed cause of death[edit][edit]

Farrar, who recovered Kopechne's body from the submerged car,[54] believed that Kopechne died from suffocation rather than drowning or from the impact of the overturned vehicle, based on the posture in which he found the body in the well of the back seat of the car, where an air pocket would have formed, with rigor mortis, her hands clasping the back seat, and her face turned upward.

Defense strategy[edit][edit]

Why does my dog sleep with his nose covered?

In relation to the Kennedy compound in Hyannis Port, south of Cape Cod, Edgartown and Chappaquiddick Island

Stephen Smith, Robert McNamara, Ted Sorensen, and Richard N. Kennedy returned to their family compound in Hyannis Port.Goodwin, Lem Billings, Milton Gwirtzman, David W. Burke, John Culver, Tunney,[41] Gargan,[60] Markham, and others came to advise him.[61] Smith, the Kennedy family business manager and "master fixer,"[61] resigned himself to the fact that the political damage had been done, and Kennedy's chance of running for President at the next available window, 1972, had passed him by.The question was how to protect him from a charge of manslaughter.

Arraignment[edit][edit]

On July 25, seven days after the incident, Kennedy appeared in court before Massachusetts District Court Judge James Boyle and pleaded guilty to a charge of leaving the scene of an accident causing bodily injury.His attorneys argued that any jail sentence should be suspended, and the prosecutors agreed, citing his age (37), character, and prior reputation.[62] "Considering the defendant's unblemished record, and insofar as the Commonwealth represents, this is not a case where he was truly attempting to conceal his identity...", Boyle sentenced him to the statutory minimum of two months in prison, which he suspended, saying that he "has already been, and will continue to be punis

Despite an Associated Press story published that morning, Boyle was unaware that Kennedy's driving record was far from "unblemished."[4] While attending the University of Virginia School of Law (1956-1959), he compiled a record of reckless driving and driving without a license.[63] On March 14, 1958, Kennedy ran a red light, then cut his tail lights and raced to avoid a highway patrol officer.

Joan Kennedy, Kennedy's wife, was pregnant at the time of the Chappaquiddick incident; she was confined to bed due to two previous miscarriages, but she attended Kopechne's funeral and stood beside her husband in court.[65] She soon suffered a third miscarriage,[66] which she blamed on the Chappaquiddick incident.

Kennedy's televised statement[edit][edit]

On July 25, at 7:30 p.m., Kennedy delivered a lengthy speech about the incident that had been prepared by Sorensen[61][68] and was broadcast live by the three television networks.[69][70] He began by reading the speech from a prepared manuscript.

Kennedy explained that his wife did not accompany him to the regatta for "health reasons," and he denied engaging in any "immoral conduct" with Kopechne or driving while intoxicated that evening.He claimed that his actions in the hours following the accident "made no sense to me at all," and that his doctors informed him that he had suffered "cerebral concussion and shock," and that his failure to report the accident to police immediately was "indefensible."To the horror of Gargan's attorney, his statement revealed his enlistment of Gargan and Markham's assistance in attempting to rescue Kopechne (despite assurances he had made to the contrary).citation needed]

After the accident, he said "all kinds of scrambled thoughts" ran through his mind, including "whether the girl might still be alive somewhere out of that immediate area," whether "some awful curse actually did hang over all the Kennedys," whether there was "some justifiable reason for me to doubt what had happened and to delay my report," and whether "the awful weight of this incredible incident might in some way pass from my shoulders."and passed out in my room."[citation needed]citation needed] He said he was overcome "by a jumble of emotions — grief, fear, doubt, exhaustion, panic, confusion, and shock". He said he instructed Gargan and Markham "not to alarm Mary Jo's friends that night", then returned to the ferry with the two men and "suddenly jumped into the water and impulsively swam across, nearly drowning once again in the effort, returning to my hotel around 2 a.m. and collapsed in my room".[citation needed]

Kennedy then put down his manuscript (though he continued to read from cue cards) and asked the people of Massachusetts to vote on whether or not he should resign:[citation needed]citation needed]

"If the citizens of Massachusetts ever lose faith in their Senator's character or ability, for whatever reason, he cannot, in my opinion, adequately perform his duties and should not continue in office." "The opportunity to work with you and serve Massachusetts has made my life worthwhile."So, tonight, I ask you, the people of Massachusetts, to think this through with me, and I seek your advice and opinion in making this decision.I ask for your prayers in making this decision, because it is one that I will eventually have to make on my own."

The speech ended with a quote from John F. Kennedy's book Profiles in Courage (ghostwritten by Sorensen): "A man does what he must — regardless of personal consequences."

The immediate and negative reaction to the speech was compared to Richard Nixon's 1952 Checkers speech by NBC newsman John Chancellor.It was "of such cheapness and bathos as to be a rejection of everything the Kennedys had stood for in candor and style," wrote Kennedy admirer David Halberstam in Harper's magazine. "It was as if these men had forgotten everything that made the Kennedys distinctive in American politics, and simply told the youngest brother that he could get away with whatever he wanted because he was a Kennedy in Massachusetts."

Inquest[edit][edit]

Although Kennedy received many messages from voters opposing his resignation from the Senate, much of the news media, as well as District Attorney Edmund Dinis, felt that Kennedy's televised speech left many questions unanswered about how the accident occurred, and his delay in reporting it. On July 31, 1969, the same day Kennedy returned to his Senate seat,[73] Dinis wrote to the Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court, Joseph Tauro, asking for a judicial review.Dinis then sent his request to Kenneth Nash, the Chief Justice of the lower court.[75] Nash informed Dinis that a grand jury investigation had more "teeth" than an inquest because it had the authority to indict defendants, whereas an inquest could only determine if a crime had been committed.

Dinis met with Edgartown District Court Judge James Boyle on August 8 to explain his reasons for requesting the inquest; Boyle did not recuse himself, despite having presided over the hearing at which Kennedy pled guilty.[76] Boyle announced the inquest would begin on September 3, and would be open to the press.[77] Kennedy's lawyers petitioned the Massachusetts Supreme Court for a temporary injunction against the inquest, which was granted on September 2.

Exhumation battle[edit][edit]

Dinis petitioned for Kopechne's body to be exhumed and autopsied, and on September 18, 1969, he publicly disclosed that blood was found on her long-sleeved blouse and in her mouth and nose, "which may or may not be consistent with death by drowning,"[78] when her clothes were given to authorities by the funeral director.

On October 20-21, Judge Bernard Brominski of the Court of Common Pleas in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, held a hearing on the request.[75] The request was opposed by Kopechne's parents.[75] Forensic pathologist Werner Spitz testified on behalf of Joseph and Gwen Kopechne that the autopsy was unnecessary and the available evidence was sufficient to conclude that Kopechne died from drowning.

The inquest[83][61] began in January 1970 in Edgartown, and the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ordered it to be conducted secretly[84][85] at the request of Kennedy's lawyers.The 763-page transcript was released four months later, with Boyle presiding.

Kennedy's testimony[edit][edit]

When Kennedy was about to leave the party, Kopechne told him, "that she was desirous of leaving" and asked "if I would be kind enough to drop her back at her hotel." Crimmins and some other guests "were concluding their meal, enjoying the fellowship, and it didn't appear to be necessary to require him to bring me back to Edgartown." p.m..

Kennedy also testified that after leaving the cottage with Kopechne, he never stopped on Cemetery Road, never backed up, never saw the deputy, and never saw another car or person. He also claimed that after turning onto Dike Road, he was driving and did not realize he was no longer heading west toward the ferry landing but instead east toward the barrier beach.

Kennedy estimated his speed at the time of the accident to be "around 20 miles per hour [32 kilometers per hour]."

"I mentioned to Gargan and Markham something like, 'You take care of the other girls; I will take care of the accident!'—that is what I said and I dove into the water," Kennedy testified.

At 2:55 a.m., Kennedy complained to the hotel owner that he had "almost tossed and turned and walked around that room.... I had not given up hope all night long that, by some miracle, Mary Jo would have escaped from the car."According to Kennedy's testimony, the two men asked him why he hadn't reported the accident, and he responded by telling them "about my own thoughts and feelings as I swam across that channel."that they were going to say Mary Jo was still alive when they arrived in the morning."[87]

Gargan and Markham's testimony[edit][edit]

Gargan and Markham testified that they assumed Kennedy would inform the authorities about the accident once he returned to Edgartown, so they did not do the reporting themselves.[16] In an October 15, 1994, interview for Ronald Kessler's book The Sins of the Father: Joseph P. Kennedy and the Dynasty He Founded, Gargan said that he and Markham resigned."The conversation about having to report was brief," Gargan told Kessler, a former Washington Post reporter, for the book.Ted said, 'Okay, okay, Joey, okay.' Paul Markham agreed with me.I've got the point, I've got the point.' Then he took a few steps back and dove into the water, leaving Markham and I expecting him to finish the conversation."[90]

Farrar's testimony[edit][edit]

Farrar testified:

She appeared to be holding herself up to take a last breath of air; it was a consciously assumed position...She didn't drown; she suffocated in her own air void.It took her at least three or four hours to die, and I could have had her out of that car in twenty-five minutes if I had received the call.However, he did not call.

Inquest into the Death of Mary Jo Kopechne, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Edgartown District Court, EVR Productions, New York, 1970.

Farrar testified that Kopechne's body was pressed up in the car in the spot where an air bubble would have formed, which he interpreted to mean that she had survived in the air bubble after the car submerged, and he came to the following conclusion:

If I had received a call within five to ten minutes of the accident and been able, as I was the next morning, to be at the victim's side within twenty-five minutes of receiving the call, there is a good chance she would have been alive upon removal from the submerged car.

Farrar thought Kopechne had "lived for at least two hours down there."

Findings[edit][edit]

In his report, Judge Boyle made the following findings:[92]

  • "Death most likely occurred between 11:30 p.m. on July 18 and 1:00 a.m. on July 19."on the 19th of July, 1969." p.m. on July 18 and 1:00 a.m. on July 19, 1969."
  • "Kennedy and Kopechne had no intention of returning to Edgartown at the time;... Kennedy had no intention of driving to the ferry slip, and his turn onto Dyke [sic] Road had been deliberate."
  • "A speed of twenty miles per hour, as Kennedy testified, in a car the size of his Oldsmobile would be negligent, if not reckless; if Kennedy was aware of this hazard, his operation of the vehicle constituted criminal conduct."
  • "On July 18, he had been driven over Chappaquiddick Road three times, as well as over Dyke Road and Dyke Bridge twice; Kopechne had been driven over Chappaquiddick Road five times, as well as over Dyke Road and Dyke Bridge twice."
  • "I believe it is likely that Kennedy was aware of the hazard that lay ahead of him on Dyke Road, but that, for reasons that are not clear from the testimony, he failed to exercise due caution as he approached the bridge."
  • "Therefore [sic], I find there is probable cause to believe that Edward M. Kennedy operated his motor vehicle negligently... and that such operation appears to have contributed to Mary Jo Kopechne's death." … and that such operation appears to have contributed to the death of Mary Jo Kopechne."

Having found probable cause of a crime, Boyle could have issued a warrant for his arrest under Massachusetts law, but he did not.[93] Despite Boyle's findings, Dinis chose not to prosecute Kennedy for manslaughter, and the Kopechne family did not bring any legal action against him, but they did receive a payment of $90,904 from him personally and $50,000 from his insurance company.

Grand jury investigation[edit][edit]

On April 6, 1970, a Dukes County grand jury convened in special session to investigate Kopechne's death. Judge Wilfred Paquet instructed the grand jury members that they could only consider matters brought to their attention by the superior court, the district attorney, or personal knowledge.[95] He cited orders of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and told the grand jury that it could not see the evidence or Boyle's report from the inquest.

Motor Vehicles investigation[edit][edit]

The registrar of the Massachusetts Registry of Motor Vehicles informed Kennedy on July 23, 1969, that his license would be suspended until a statutory hearing concerning the accident was held. [96] The suspension was required by Massachusetts law for any fatal motor vehicle accident if there were no witnesses. The in camera hearing was held on May 18, 1970, and found that "operation was too fast for existing conditions."

Fringe theories[edit][edit]

The Bridge at Chappaquiddick, written by journalist Jack Olsen in 1970, attempted to answer the incident's unanswered questions. Lieutenant Bernie Flynn, a state police detective assigned to the Cape Cod district attorney's office, was a Kennedy admirer who came up with a theory he couldn't prove: Kennedy got out of the car, and Kopechne drove herself off the bridge."Ted Kennedy didn't want to admit to being drunk with a woman in a car late at night, but he was scared when he saw 'Huck' Look."Although Olsen denied ever talking to Flynn, he related this theory in his book.[99] Kopechne was 5 ft 2 in (1.57 m), a foot shorter than Kennedy, and Olsen argued that she might not have seen the bridge as she drove Kennedy's car over unfamiliar roads at night, with no external lighting, and after she had consummated

On July 20, 1994 (the 25th anniversary of the incident), a BBC Inside Story episode titled "Chappaquiddick" repeated Flynn's theory, arguing that the explanation would account for Kennedy's lack of concern the next morning, as he was unaware of the accident, and for the forensic evidence of Kopechne's injuries being inconsistent with her sitting in the passenger seat.

In his 2017 book Chappaquiddick Speaks, fourth-generation Chappaquiddick resident Bill Pinney proposes a theory that Kopechne was seriously injured in an earlier crash, and then the bridge accident was staged.[102] The book laments how the incident robbed Chappaquiddick of its traditional peace and privacy, attracting large tourist groups wanting to view the sites associated with the tragedy.

Aftermath[edit][edit]

Why does my dog sleep with his nose covered?

Time magazine reported immediately after the incident that "one sick joke already visualizes a Democrat asking about Nixon during the 1972 presidential campaign: 'Would you let this man sell you a used car?' Answer: 'Yes, but I sure wouldn't let Teddy drive it.'"'"[103] A mock advertisement in National Lampoon magazine showed a floating Volkswagen Beetle, itself a parody of a Volkswagen advertisement, showing that the vehicle's underside was so well sealed that it would float on water, but with the caption, "If Ted Kennedy drove a Volkswagen, he'd be President today." The satire resulted in legal action by Volkswagen, claiming unauthorized use of its trademark; the matter was later settled out of court.[104][105]

Following his televised speech about the incident on July 25, supporters responded with phone calls and telegrams to newspapers and the Kennedy family.[69] They were strongly in favor of him remaining in office, and he was re-elected in 1970 with 62% of the vote, a margin of nearly 500,000 votes, but it was down from 74% in the previous election in 1964.

One analyst asked, "Can we really trust him if the Russians come over the ice cap? Can he make the kind of split-second decisions the astronauts had to make in their landing on the moon?"[103] Prior to Chappaquiddick, public polls showed that a large majority expected Kennedy to run for president in 1972, but he pledged not to run.Furthermore, Kennedy declined to be George McGovern's running mate that year, and in 1974, he pledged not to run in 1976, in part due to renewed media interest in Chappaquiddick.

Kennedy declared his presidential candidacy in late 1979, when he challenged President Jimmy Carter for the Democratic nomination for the 1980 election. On November 4, 1979, CBS aired a one-hour television special titled Teddy, hosted by Roger Mudd.The program featured an interview with Kennedy, which was interspersed with visual material, and a large portion of the show was devoted to the Chappaquiddick incident.During the interview, Mudd repeatedly questioned Kennedy about the incident, and at one point directly accused him of lying.[108] Kennedy also gave an "incoherent and repetitive" answer to the question, "Why do you want to be President?"[109] The program caused serious political damage to Kennedy.[109][110][111][112][113][114] President Jimmy Carter alluded to the Chappaquiddick incident twice in five days, once declaring thatKennedy served in the Senate until his death in 2009.

After Kennedy's death, New York Times Magazine editor Ed Klein stated that Kennedy asked people, "Have you heard any new jokes about Chappaquiddick?" "It's not that he didn't feel remorse about the death of Mary Jo Kopechne," Klein argued, "but that he still always saw the other side of everything, and the ridiculous side of things, too."

Media[edit][edit]

Joyce Carol Oates' novella Black Water (1992) fictionalizes the incident.

It is the central theme of John Curran's 2017 film Chappaquiddick.

A similar, fictional incident inspired by the Chappaquiddick incident occurs and is covered up in Succession's season 1 finale.

The incident was featured in a season of Fox Nation's Scandalous in 2019. [124][125][126]

In the 2019 series For All Mankind, Kennedy cancels his Chappaquiddick party after the Soviets land on the Moon before the US, thereby avoiding Kopechne's death; Kennedy later wins the 1972 Presidential election and is later accused of having an extramarital affair with Kopechne, who works as a White House aide.

See also[edit][edit]

  • Why does my dog sleep with his nose covered?
     1960s portal

Notes[edit][edit]

  1. Gargan's mother was Kennedy's mother's sister; Gargan's mother died when he was six, and he was raised by Ted's parents Joseph P.and Rose Kennedy.[12] Gargan's mother was the sister of Kennedy's mother. Gargan's mother died when he was six, and he was raised after that by Ted's parents Joseph P. and Rose Kennedy.[12]
  2. Tretter had driven her back to Edgartown earlier in the evening to borrow a radio, and she had left her purse in the car. The purse was left in the car when Tretter drove her back to Edgartown earlier in the evening to borrow a radio.[19]
  3. Kennedy first called Helga Wagner, a Kennedy family friend, to get Smith's phone number while he was on vacation in Europe. Kennedy first called Helga Wagner, a Kennedy family friend, to get a phone number for Smith, who was vacationing in Europe.
  4. Exhibit number two at the inquest was a photographic reproduction of Arena's typing, which is available at Damore, p. 448. A photographic reproduction of Arena's typing was Exhibit number 2 at the inquest, and is available at Damore, p. 448.
  5. Arena typed "Dyke" for some reason, while Markham used the correct spelling "Dike" (see Damore, picture insert). Arena for some reason typed "Dyke", though Markham used the correct spelling "Dike". See Damore, picture insert.
  6. Arena adds "(arrow on map)" at this point, while Markham inserts a caret to insert a line of text that is illegibly crossed out; see image in Damore, p.448. At this point, Arena adds "(arrow on map)". Markham, at this same point, uses a caret to insert a line of text that is illegibly crossed out; see picture in Damore, p.448.
  7. Because Kennedy was unsure of how to spell Kopechne's surname, the statement left it blank; see Damore, p. 22. The statement left Kopechne's surname blank because Kennedy was unsure of its spelling; see Damore, p. 22.

Citations[edit][edit]

  1. The New Yorker, "Chappaquiddick's Echoes."The date was July 17, 1994, and the date was May 31, 2018. "Chappaquiddick's Echoes". The New Yorker. July 17, 1994. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  2. Garry Wills, "The Real Reason Chappaquiddick Disqualifies Kennedy," April 29, 1976.Retrieved on May 31, 2018 from The New York Review of Books. Wills, Garry (April 29, 1976). "The Real Reason Chappaquiddick Disqualifies Kennedy". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  3. "Ted Kennedy on the Rocks," Michael Kelly (April 15, 2016).Retrieved on May 31, 2018 from GQ. Kelly, Michael (April 15, 2016). "Ted Kennedy on the Rocks". GQ. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  4. ^ abcDamore, p. 193.a b c Damore, p. 193.
  5. "Ted escapes car crash; woman dies," Eugene Register-Guard reports.Associated Press, Eugene, OregonPage 1A, July 19, 1969. "Ted escapes car plunge; woman dies". Eugene Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon. Associated Press. July 19, 1969. p. 1A.
  6. "Kennedy involved in fatality," according to the Reading Eagle.Reading, Pennsylvania. UPIp. 1. July 20, 1969 "Kennedy involved in fatality". Reading Eagle. Reading, Pennsylvania. UPI. July 20, 1969. p. 1.
  7. "A Charge Will Be Filed Against Kennedy," according to the Eugene Register-Guard.Associated Press, Eugene, OregonPage 1A, July 20, 1969. "Charge to Be Filed Against Kennedy". Eugene Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon. Associated Press. July 20, 1969. p. 1A.
  8. abcdefPutzel, Michael; Pyle, Richard. "Chappaquiddick (part 1)" (February 22, 1976).Lakeland Ledger, FloridaAssociated Press. p. 1B.a b c d e f Putzel, Michael; Pyle, Richard (February 22, 1976). "Chappaquiddick (part 1)". Lakeland Ledger. Lakeland, Florida. Associated Press. p. 1B.
  9. abcPutzel, Michael; Pyle, Richard. "Chappaquiddick (part 2)" (February 29, 1976).Lakeland Ledger. (Florida)Associated Press. p. 1B.a b c Putzel, Michael; Pyle, Richard (February 29, 1976). "Chappaquiddick (part 2)". Lakeland Ledger. (Florida). Associated Press. p. 1B.
  10. "Unlike Kopechne, the questions have never died," says abJacoby (July 24, 1994).New London, Connecticut: The DayThe Boston Globe, page C9.a b Jacoby, Jeff (July 24, 1994). "Unlike Kopechne, the questions have never died". The Day. New London, Connecticut. The Boston Globe. p. C9.
  11. "Kennedy's Legacy: Chappaquiddick marked the end of one Ted Kennedy and the beginning of another," according to the Daily News.New York. "Kennedy's Legacy: Chappaquiddick was the end of one Ted Kennedy and the beginning of another". Daily News. New York.
  12. 'Interview with Ann Gargan,' by Edward M.Retrieved on April 2, 2018 from the Kennedy Institute. "Interview with Ann Gargan". Edward M. Kennedy Institute. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
  13. ^Damore, p. 69. Damore, p. 69.
  14. ^Damore, pp. 69–70. Damore, pp. 69–70.
  15. ^Kessler, p. 418. Kessler, p. 418.
  16. ^ abcdefWills, pp. 117–120.a b c d e f Wills, pp. 117–120.
  17. "John B. Crimmins, Long an Edward Kennedy Associate"May 31, 1977, The New York TimesThe date was May 31, 2018. "John B. Crimmins, Long an Associate Of Edward Kennedy". The New York Times. May 31, 1977. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  18. ^ abcBly, pp. 202–206.a b c Bly, pp. 202–206.
  19. ^ abBoyle, p. 124a b Boyle, p. 124
  20. abBoyle, pp.26-27, as reported in Damore, p.357.a b Boyle, pp. 26–27, reported at Damore, p. 357.
  21. ^Damore, p. 357. Damore, p. 357.
  22. "Chapter 3: Chappaquiddick: Conflicted Ambitions, then, Chappaquiddick," Jenna abRussell (February 17, 2009).Retrieved February 24, 2009, from The Boston Globe.a b Russell, Jenna (February 17, 2009). "Chapter 3: Chappaquiddick: Conflicted Ambitions, then, Chappaquiddick". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 24, 2009.
  23. Exhumation hearing, p.59, as reported in Damore, p.103. Exhumation hearing, p. 59, reported at Damore, p. 103.
  24. ^Boyle, p. 123 Boyle, p. 123
  25. Vineyard Gazette, "Cape Pogue and Poucha Pond."The date was May 31, 2018. "Cape Pogue and Poucha Pond". Vineyard Gazette. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  26. The History of Martha's Vineyard, Dukes County, Massachusetts: Town Annals, by Charles Edward Banks (May 31, 2018).G.H. DeanGoogle Books retrieved on May 31, 2018. Banks, Charles Edward (May 31, 2018). The History of Martha's Vineyard, Dukes County, Massachusetts: Town annals. G.H. Dean. Retrieved May 31, 2018 – via Google Books.
  27. 'Chappaquiddick Island Stock Photos and Pictures - Getty Images.'The date was May 31, 2018. "Chappaquiddick Island Stock Photos and Pictures - Getty Images". gettyimages.com. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  28. "Tow Truck Taking Kennedy Car Out of Pond." gettyimages.comThe date was May 31, 2018. "Tow Truck Pulling Kennedy Car from Pond". gettyimages.com. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  29. Boyle, pp. 56-60, as cited in Damore, p.360. Boyle, p. 56–60, reported at Damore, p. 360.
  30. Anderson and Gibson, p. 138-140.a b Anderson & Gibson, p 138–140.
  31. "Diver Suggestions Kopechne Could Have Been Saved," Jack Anderson (September 1, 1969).St. Petersburg Timesp. 19A. Anderson, Jack (September 1, 1969). "Diver Hints Kopechne Might Have Been Saved". St. Petersburg Times. p. 19A.
  32. abBoyle, p. 63, as cited in Damore, p. 362.a b Boyle, p. 63, reported at Damore, p. 362.
  33. abBoyle, p. 80, as cited in Damore, p.363.a b Boyle, p. 80, reported at Damore, p. 363.
  34. ^Damore, p. 1. Damore, p. 1.
  35. ^ abCutler, p. 10, 42.a b Cutler, p. 10, 42.
  36. ^Lange & DeWitt, p. 40–41. Lange & DeWitt, p. 40–41.
  37. ^Damore, p. 6. Damore, p. 6.
  38. ^Cutler, p. 10. Cutler, p. 10.
  39. ^Damore, p. 8. Damore, p. 8.
  40. "The Mysterious Helga Wagner," Maxine Cheshire (March 13, 1980).Retrieved from www.washingtonpost.com on May 31, 2018. Cheshire, Maxine (March 13, 1980). "The Mysterious Helga Wagner". Retrieved May 31, 2018 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  41. ab"John Tunney Oral History (2007), California Senator - Miller Center". millercenter.orgRetrieved on May 31, 2018 from October 27, 2016.a b "John Tunney Oral History (2007), Senator, California - Miller Center". millercenter.org. October 27, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  42. "Chappaquiddick story," Jack Anderson (September 25, 1969).New Hampshire's Nashua Telegraph(Bell-McClure). p. 4. Anderson, Jack (September 25, 1969). "Chappaquiddick story". Nashua Telegraph. New Hampshire. (Bell-McClure). p. 4.
  43. Personal notes of Arena, p. 1, cited in Damore, p.16. Arena's personal notes, p. 1, cited in Damore, p. 16.
  44. ^Damore, pp.21–22. Damore, pp.21–22.
  45. ^Boyle, p. 125. Boyle, p. 125.
  46. ^Damore, p. 31 Damore, p. 31
  47. ^Damore, p. 178 Damore, p. 178
  48. ^Damore, p. v. Damore, p. v.
  49. "Ted Kennedy joins hundreds at accident victim's rites," Eugene Register-Guard reports.Oregon. Associated Pressp. 1A, July 22, 1969. "Ted Kennedy joins hundreds at rites for accident victim". Eugene Register-Guard. Oregon. Associated Press. July 22, 1969. p. 1A.
  50. "Kennedy family flies to Pennsylvania for woman accident victim's funeral," reports The Bulletin.Bend, Oregon. UPIp. 1 (July 22, 1969). "Kennedy family flies to Pennsylvania for funeral of woman accident victim". The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. UPI. July 22, 1969. p. 1.
  51. ^Damore, pp. 174–175. Damore, pp. 174–175.
  52. ^Damore, p. 270. Damore, p. 270.
  53. Garrett M. Graff (2022)Watergate: A New History, Avid Reader Press, New York, 1st ed.p. 42ISBN 978-1-9821-3916-2. OCLC 1260107112. Graff, Garrett M. (2022). Watergate: A New History (1 ed.). New York: Avid Reader Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-9821-3916-2. OCLC 1260107112.
  54. Interview with John Farrar on the Howie Carr Show John Farrar interview on the Howie Carr Show
  55. ^Klein, p. 93. Klein, p. 93.
  56. "'The Kennedy Machine Buried What Really Happened': Revisiting Chappaquiddick 50 Years Later," Josh Sanburn (July 17, 2019).Retrieved on May 29, 2020, from Vanity Fair. Sanburn, Josh (July 17, 2019). "'The Kennedy Machine Buried What Really Happened': Revisiting Chappaquiddick, 50 Years Later". Vanity Fair. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  57. John D. Lofton Jr."Kopechnes begins to have doubts about the Chappaquiddick affair," June 17, 1975.Beaver County Times, Beaver County, Pennsylvaniap.A7 (United Feature Syndicate). Lofton, John D. Jr. (June 17, 1975). "Kopechnes begin to have doubts about Chappaquiddick affair". Beaver County Times. Pennsylvania. (United Feature Syndicate). p. A7.
  58. "Chappaquiddick diver slams Teddy," Tom Tiede (January 28, 1980).Cape Girardeau, Missouri residentNEA. p. 4. Tiede, Tom (January 28, 1980). "Chappaquiddick diver slams Teddy". Southeast Missourian. Cape Girardeau. NEA. p. 4.
  59. ^Kappel.[page needed] Kappel.[page needed]
  60. Reader's Digest, "Chappaquiddick: The Unanswered Questions About Ted Kennedy's Fatal Crash."6 April 2018, retrieved 31 May 2018. "Chappaquiddick: The Unanswered Questions About Ted Kennedy's Fatal Crash". Reader's Digest. April 6, 2018. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  61. Vanity Fair, "The End of Camelot."Retrieved on May 31, 2018, from September 1, 1993.a b c d e f "The End of Camelot". Vanity Fair. September 1, 1993. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  62. ^Damore, pp. 192–193. Damore, pp. 192–193.
  63. "Chapter 1: Teddy: A Childhood of Privilege, Promise, and Pain," Bella English (February 15, 2009).Retrieved February 24, 2009, from The Boston Globe. English, Bella (February 15, 2009). "Chapter 1: Teddy: A childhood of privilege, promise, and pain". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 24, 2009.
  64. ^Damore, pp. 169–170. Damore, pp. 169–170.
  65. ^Taraborrelli, p. 395–96, 399. Taraborrelli, p. 395–96, 399.
  66. ^Taraborrelli, p. 192. Taraborrelli, p. 192.
  67. "Chappaquiddick: No Profile in Kennedy Courage," Susan Donaldson James (August 26, 2009).ABC News, accessed August 26, 2009. James, Susan Donaldson (August 26, 2009). "Chappaquiddick: No Profile in Kennedy Courage". ABC News. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
  68. ^Damore, pp. 173, 200 Damore, pp. 173, 200
  69. "Kennedy may resign," the nation was told on television.Associated Press (New London, Connecticut).p. 1 (July 26, 1969).a b "Kennedy may quit, nation told on TV". The Day. (New London, Connecticut). Associated Press. July 26, 1969. p. 1.
  70. "Kennedy puts his political future on the line," according to the Eugene Register-Guard.(Oregon). Associated Pressp. 1A, July 26, 1969.a b "Kennedy puts political future on line". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. July 26, 1969. p. 1A.
  71. The entire speech was inquest exhibit #3, and it is available at Damore, pp. 203-206. The entire speech was inquest exhibit #3, and can be found at Damore, pp. 203–206.
  72. ^Damore, pp. 206, 208. Damore, pp. 206, 208.
  73. ^Damore, p. 240. Damore, p. 240.
  74. ^Damore, pp. 239–240. Damore, pp. 239–240.
  75. ^ abcdeDamore, p. vi.a b c d e Damore, p. vi.
  76. ^Damore, p. 266. Damore, p. 266.
  77. ^Damore, p. 267. Damore, p. 267.
  78. ^Damore, p. 307. Damore, p. 307.
  79. 'Dinis Says Blood Found On Mary Jo's Body,' Boston Herald TravelerSeptember 16, 1969. "Dinis Says Blood On Mary Jo's Body". Boston Herald Traveler. September 16, 1969.
  80. Richard L. Tedrow and Thomas L. Tedrow (1980)Pelican Publishing, Chappaquiddick, Death.pp. 98–99. ISBN 1-4556-0340-6. Tedrow, Richard L., and Thomas L. (1980). Death at Chappaquiddick. Pelican Publishing. pp. 98–99. ISBN 1-4556-0340-6.
  81. "Examiner testifies against kopechne autopsy," according to the Kent Stater.October 22, 1969. "Examiner testifies against kopechne autopsy". Daily Kent Stater. October 22, 1969.
  82. ^Damore, p. 343. Damore, p. 343.
  83. ^Chappaquiddick Inquest - Boston.com Chappaquiddick Inquest - Boston.com
  84. ^Trotta, p. 184. Trotta, p. 184.
  85. ^ abBly, p. 213.a b Bly, p. 213.
  86. Boyle, p. 35, as cited in Damore, p.358. Boyle, p. 35, reported at Damore, p. 358.
  87. abBoyle, p. 70, as cited in Damore, p.364.a b Boyle, p. 70, reported at Damore, p. 364.
  88. Boyle, p.70, as reported by Damore, p.364. Boyle, p. 70, reported at Damore, p. 364.
  89. Boyle, p. 322, as cited in Damore, p.375. Boyle, p. 322, reported at Damore, p. 375.
  90. ^Kessler, p. 419. Kessler, p. 419.
  91. James S. Kunen, Dirk Mathison, S. Avery Brown, and Tom Nugent (July 24, 1989)."Frustrated Grand Jurors Say It Wasn't By Chance Ted Kennedy Got Off Easy."32 (4).[page needed] Kunen, James S.; Mathison, Dirk; Brown, S. Avery & Nugent, Tom (July 24, 1989). "Frustrated Grand Jurors Say It Was No Accident Ted Kennedy Got Off Easy". People. 32 (4).[page needed]
  92. ^Dinis, p. 391–392. Dinis, p. 391–392.
  93. ^Dinis, p. 392. Dinis, p. 392.
  94. ^ abBly, p. 216.a b Bly, p. 216.
  95. abcd"The End of the Affair."20 April 1970. Archived from the original on 30 October 2010.The date was August 3, 2008.a b c d "End of the Affair". Time. April 20, 1970. Archived from the original on October 30, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
  96. Registrar McLaughlin's press release, July 23, 1969, as reported in Damore, p. 165. Press release of Registrar McLaughlin, July 23, 1969, reported at Damore, p. 165.
  97. Damore, pp. 449-50, contains facsimiles of the hearing report and the letter. Facsimiles of the hearing report and the letter are at Damore, pp. 449–50.
  98. ^Damore, p. 309 Damore, p. 309
  99. ^Damore, p. 350 Damore, p. 350
  100. ^Olsen.[page needed] Olsen.[page needed]
  101. "One Giant Leap Backwards," by Peter Barnard (July 22, 1994).The Times. London.[page needed] Barnard, Peter (July 22, 1994). "One Giant Leap Backwards". The Times. London.[page needed]
  102. Chappaquiddick Speaks, Bill Pinney, Stormy Weather Press, 2017.ISBN 978-0-692-94376-2. pvii-viii. Pinney, Bill. Chappaquiddick Speaks, Stormy Weather Press, 2017. ISBN 978-0-692-94376-2. p. vii-viii.
  103. a"The Mysteries of Chappaquiddick."The date was August 1, 1969, and it was archived on August 31, 2009.a b "The Mysteries of Chappaquiddick". Time. August 1, 1969. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009.
  104. John D. Lofton Jr."Suit settled on Kennedy spoof," November 19, 1973.Victoria Advocate. Texasp.4A, Los Angeles Times/Washington Post News Service Lofton, John D. Jr. (November 19, 1973). "Suit settled on Kennedy spoof". Victoria Advocate. Texas. Los Angeles Times/The Washington Post News Service. p. 4A.
  105. ^"Lampoon's Surrender". TimeArchived from the original on March 11, 2007, on November 12, 1973.The date was September 10, 2006. "Lampoon's Surrender". Time. November 12, 1973. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
  106. "Kennedy "won't run," says decision final," Gaines, Richard (September 23, 1974).Eugene Register-Guard. OregonUPI. p. 1A. Gaines, Richard (September 23, 1974). "Kennedy "won't run", says decision final". Eugene Register-Guard. Oregon. UPI. p. 1A.
  107. "Kennedy rejects race," says the Spokane Daily Chronicle.Washington. Associated Pressp.1 (September 23, 1974). "Kennedy rejects race". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Washington. Associated Press. September 23, 1974. p. 1.
  108. ^Barry, p. 182. Barry, p. 182.
  109. "Chapter 4: Sailing Into the Wind: Losing a Quest for the Top, Finding a New Freedom," Sam abAllis (February 18, 2009).Retrieved March 10, 2009, from The Boston Globe.a b Allis, Sam (February 18, 2009). "Chapter 4: Sailing into the Wind: Losing a Quest for the Top, Finding a new Freedom". The Boston Globe. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  110. ^Boller, p. 355. Boller, p. 355.
  111. ^Barry, p. 188. Barry, p. 188.
  112. ^Baughman, p. 169. Baughman, p. 169.
  113. ^Jamieson, p. 379–81. Jamieson, p. 379–81.
  114. "Why Chappaquiddick haunts Kennedy," Pat Buchanan (July 23, 1979).Ocala Star-Banner. Floridap. 4A. Buchanan, Pat (July 23, 1979). "Why Chappaquiddick haunts Kennedy". Ocala Star-Banner. Florida. p. 4A.
  115. "Nation: Once More, Chappaquiddick."8 October 1979. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009.26th of August, 2009. "Nation: Once Again, Chappaquiddick". Time. October 8, 1979. Archived from the original on August 30, 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
  116. Diane Rehm (August 26, 2009). "Reflections on Sen."Diane Rehm: The Diane Rehm ShowWAMU-FM, Washington, D.C.At 29:45, the event occurs. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011.28th of August, 2009. Rehm, Diane (August 26, 2009). "Reflections on Sen. Kennedy". The Diane Rehm Show. Washington, D. C.: WAMU-FM. Event occurs at 29:45. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2009.
  117. "Chappaquiddick Bridge," Nashua Telegraph(AP photo) New HampshireJuly 12, 1974, page 13. "The bridge on Chappaquiddick". Nashua Telegraph. New Hampshire. (AP photo). July 12, 1974. p. 13.
  118. "Decision near on Chappaquiddick Bridge." Pittsburgh Press.UPI, 21 June 1981p. A-4. "Decision near on bridge at Chappaquiddick". Pittsburgh Press. UPI. June 21, 1981. p. A-4.
  119. "Some say the Chappaquiddick Bridge is a nuisance."The Associated Press reports from New London, Connecticut.p.5 (August 29, 1983). "Some say Chappaquiddick bridge is nuisance". The Day. New London, Connecticut. Associated Press. August 29, 1983. p. 5.
  120. Robert W. Trott (July 17, 1989)"Bitter memories and a rotting bridge," according to the Spokesman-Review.Associated Press, Spokane, Washingtonp. A5. Trott, Robert W. (July 17, 1989). "Bitter memories and a rotting bridge". Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. Associated Press. p. A5.
  121. "Chappaquiddick: bridge demolished, but story lives."Associated Press, Norwalk, ConnecticutJuly 18, 1994, p. 24. "Chappaquiddick: bridge abandoned, but story lives". The Hour. Norwalk, Connecticut. Associated Press. July 18, 1994. p. 24.
  122. "A bridge to the past," says the Milwaukee Journal.July 18, 1994: wire servicesp. A3. "A bridge to the past". Milwaukee Journal. wire services. July 18, 1994. p. A3.
  123. "Succession caps off an incredible first season with a wedding, a death, and no shortage of power plays," Randall Colburn writes on August 5, 2018.The A.V. Club7th of February, 2019. Colburn, Randall (August 5, 2018). "Succession caps off an incredible first season with a wedding, a death, and no shortage of power plays". The A.V. Club. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  124. "Fox Nation: An even more partisan, right-wing, pro-Trump environment than Fox News." "Fox Nation: A place even more partisan, right-wing, pro-Trump than Fox News".
  125. "Review: Fox Nation, Conservatives' Netflix: Will MAGA viewers pay for the free rage?" Los Angeles Times.November 29, 2018. "Review: Watching Fox Nation, conservatives' Netflix: Will MAGA viewers pay for the rage they get for free?". Los Angeles Times. November 29, 2018.
  126. "A powerful Fox Nation documentary commemorates the 50th anniversary of Chappaquiddick." Fox NewsJuly 19, 2019. "Powerful Fox Nation documentary marks 50-year anniversary of Chappaquiddick". Fox News. July 19, 2019.
  127. Rich Sands (October 1, 2019). "For All Mankind producers and cast tease a new course for the space race at NYCC."Retrieved on June 21, 2022 by SyFy. Sands, Rich (October 1, 2019). "Producers and cast of For All Mankind tease a new course for the space race at NYCC". SyFy. Retrieved June 21, 2022.
  128. "For All Mankind Recap: Tightly Wound," Liz Shannon Miller (November 28, 2019).Retrieved on June 21, 2022 by Vulture. Miller, Liz Shannon (November 28, 2019). "For All Mankind Recap: Tightly Wound". Vulture. Retrieved June 21, 2022.

General sources[edit][edit]

  • Anderson, Jack, and Daryl Gibson (1998) published Peace, War, and Politics: An Eyewitness Account.Forge, New York, ISBN 0-312-87497-9.Peace, War, and Politics: An Eyewitness Account. New York: Forge. ISBN 0-312-87497-9.
  • Ann Marie Barry (1997) published Visual Intelligence: Perception, Image, and Manipulation in Visual Communication in January 1997.State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, ISBN 0-7914-3435-4.
  • James L. Baughman (2006)Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, The Republic of Mass Culture: Journalism, Filmmaking, and Broadcasting in America Since 1941.ISBN 0-8018-8315-6.
  • Nellie Bly (1996) published The Kennedy Men: Three Generations of Sex, Scandal, and Secrets.Kensington Books, New York, ISBN 1-57566-106-3.
  • Paul F. Boller (2004)Presidential Election Campaigns: George Washington to George W. BushISBN 0-19-516716-3 (Oxford University Press).
  • James A. Boyle (1970)Inquest into Mary Jo Kopechne's death (PDF). Edgartown, MA: Edgartown District Court.OCLC 180774589.(PDF). Edgartown, MA: Edgartown District Court. OCLC 180774589.
  • Cutler, R. BYou, the Jury... (1980).In Re: Chappaquiddick. Bett's & Mirror Press, Danvers, MA.OCLC 5790437.
  • Senatorial Privilege: The Chappaquiddick Cover-up, Leo Damore, 1988.Dell Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-440-20416-X.
  • Kathleen Hall Jamieson (1996), Packaging the Presidency: A History and Criticism of Presidential Campaign Advertising (3rd ed.).Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 0-19-508942-1.
  • Kenneth R. Kappel (1989)Shapolsky Publishers, New York, Chappaquiddick Revealed: What Really Happened.ISBN 978-0-944007-64-8.
  • Ronald Kessler (1996), The Sins of the Father: Joseph P. Kennedy and the Dynasty He Established.ISBN 0-446-60384-8 from Hachette Book Group USA (Warner Books).
  • Ted Kennedy: The Dream That Never Died, Edward Klein, 2009.Crown Publishers, New York, ISBN 978-0-307-45103-3.
  • James E. T. Lange& K. Jr. DeWittChappaquiddick: The True Story, 1992.St. Martin's PressISBN 0-312-08749-7.
  • The Bridge at Chappaquiddick, by Jack Olsen, 1970.Little, Brown, Boston, OCLC 55947.
  • J. Randy Taraborrelli (2000)Women of Camelot, Jackie, Ethel, and Joan. Warner Books.ISBN 0-446-52426-3.
  • Tedrow, Thomas L., and Richard L. TedrowDeath at Chappquiddick, 1980Pelican Publishing. p. 36ISBN 0-88289-249-5.
  • Fighting for Air: In the Trenches With Television News, Liz Trotta, 1994.University of Missouri Press, Columbia, MO, ISBN 0-8262-0952-1.
  • Gary Wills, The Kennedy Imprisonment: A Meditation on Power, 1st Mariner Books, 2002.Houghton Mifflin, Boston, ISBN 0-618-13443-3.

Further reading[edit][edit]

  • James M. Burns (1976)The Camelot Legacy: Edward Kennedy. New York: WW. Norton and CoISBN 0-393-07501-X.Edward Kennedy and the Camelot Legacy. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-07501-X.
  • Stephanie Caruana, The Gemstone File: A Memoir, published in 2006.Trafford, Victoria, BC, ISBN 1-4120-6137-7.
  • H. Don Hastings (1969)The Ted Kennedy Episode. Dallas: Reliable PressOCLC 16841243.
  • Richard E. Jones (1979)The Chappaquiddick Inquest: The Complete Transcript of the Inquest into the Death of Mary Jo Kopechne. Pittsford, NY: Lynn PublicationsOCLC 11807998.
  • Peter Knight, ed., 2003Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC ClioISBN 1-57607-812-4.
  • Joyce C. Oates (1992)Black Water. New York: EP. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-93455-3(fictional treatment). (fictional treatment).
  • The Inspector's Opinion: The Chappaquiddick Incident, Malcolm Reybold, 1975Saturday Review Press, New York, ISBN 978-0-8415-0399-1.
  • Teddy Bare: The Last of the Kennedy Clan, Zad Rust, 1971.Boston: Western Islands. OCLC 147764This book follows the events of the Chappaquiddick tragedy from its mysterious beginning to its squalid conclusion... before a terrorized grand jury..." - Book Prologue, p.viiTeddy Bare: The Last of the Kennedy Clan. Boston: Western Islands. OCLC 147764. This book follows the circumstances of the Chappaquiddick tragedy, from its mysterious beginning to its squalid conclusion ... before a terrorized grand jury ..." – Prologue to the book, p. vii
  • Robert Sherrill, The Last Kennedy, 1976Dial Press, New York, ISBN 978-0-8037-4419-6.
  • Daniel J. Spitz (2006)"Investigation of Bodies in Water". In Spitz, Werner U.; Spitz, Daniel J& Russell S. Fisher (eds.)Spitz and Fisher's Medicolegal Investigation of Death: A Guideline for the Use of Pathology in Crime Investigations (4th ed.)Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinoispp. 846–881. ISBN 978-0-398-07544-6.
  • Thomas L. Tedrow (1979)Chappaquiddick fatality. Pelican, New OrleansISBN 0-88289-249-5.
  • Larryann C. Willis (1980)Chappaquiddick Decision, Better Books Publisher, Portland, OROCLC 6666517.

  • "How to Turn a Forgotten Figure of American History into a National and Gender Emblem: Joyce Carol Oates's Treatment of Mary Jo Kopechne in Black Water," by Barbara Miceli, in Echinox Journal, 33/2017, pp. 240–254.
  • Miceli, Barbara. "Black Water and Mudwoman by Joyce Carol Oates: Two Drownings in Comparison", in Revell, n.3, vol 26, pp. 276–291. https://periodicosonline.uems.br/index.php/REV/author/submission/4211
  • FBI Chappaquiddick investigation files
  • Chappaquiddick Inquest—Boston.com
  • National broadcast of Edward M. Kennedy's Chappaquiddick Address to the People of Massachusetts, from Joseph P.On July 25, 1969, at Kennedy's residence
  • Photographs of the Chappaquiddick incident from 1969—New Haven Register
  • a selection of news stories about the incident

Why do dogs cover nose when sleep?

Meaning: According to Dr. Margaret Gruen, DVM, this position keeps all of the dog's vital organs tucked and hiddenWhen a dog sleeps in this position, it indicates that they are trying to protect themselves while sleeping or that they are still adjusting to their surroundings.they seek to protect themselves while sleeping or that they're still getting used to their environment.

Why does my dog sleep with her face covered?

By covering their faces, dogs are protecting their eyes and throat. Although it is the least vulnerable sleep position, it also is the least restful way for dogs to sleepDespite the fact that the position allows dogs to conserve body heat and protect their limbs, face, throat, and vital organs, dogs remain tense.protecting their eyes and throat. Although it is the least vulnerable sleep position, it also is the least restful way for dogs to sleep. Although the position lets dogs conserve body heat and protect limbs, face, throat, and vital organs, dogs remain tense.

What draws dogs to hiding their noses in blankets?

According to some pet experts, dogs are "dening" animals, which explains why many dogs actually prefer their crates when left alone at home or to sleep in at night. It is a dog's instinct to sleep or relax in a small and protected space to feel warm and safe.